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In chronic studies, these observations are critical in tracking tumor development and for determining animals in extremis, which should be euthanized for humane reasons and to prevent autolysis and tissue loss. Arnold et al. (1977) provide a useful description of a clinical assessment program for chronic studies. Daily observations are performed first thing in the morning and last thing before leaving in the afternoon to assess the health of the animals and identify animals that may be in extremis.

These secondary tests evaluate motor and sensory function as well as cognitive ability. Examples of secondary tests include sensory-evoked potential experiments and schedule-controlled behavior studies. Descriptions of these secondary tests can be found in Annau (1986). 15. 16. The order of measurement should be consistent, progressing from the least interactive to the most interactive measurements. Home-cage observations are made first. Assessments of posture, clonic movements, tonic movements, and palpebral closure (if the animal’s eyes can be seen) are taken prior to removing the animal from its cage.

These examinations, which may be done as part of acute or repeat dose toxicity studies or a study specifically designed to assess just the neurobehavioral effects, typically involve screens consisting of an abbreviated functional observational battery and some measure of locomotor activity. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has written guidelines on the design and conduct of these studies (OECD, 1995a,b). To meet EPA guidelines, the screen is performed prior to the start of treatment, then periodically during the course of treatment.

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Acceptability of Risk From Radiation - Human Spaceflight


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